In this ongoing project we aim to investigate a fundamental feature of human social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) or the ability to ascribe mental states to agents. One of the central tests for ToM is the false belief task in which the participant need to predict how an agent will act on the basis of her/his (mis)representation of the world. Using a false belief task (3D-animated videos), we ask if infants (18- to 36-month-olds) and adults show anticipatory looking that reflects the false belief of another agent. Our contributors include the authors of the original studies and of previous replication attempts, as well researchers from diverse theoretical orientations (e.g., nativist and core knowledge, dual process, conceptual change and skeptics). Following the anticipatory looking study, we hope to continue the project with other measures such as Violation of Expectation, and interactive tasks.


Dora Kampis, Hannes Rakoczy, Tobias Schuwerk, Michael Frank


For a detailed index of collaborators (+ institutions, countries, studies), check the MB collaborator dashboard:


Stage 1 Registered Report has received an In Principle Acceptance at Child Development (read the preprint); preparing to begin data collection.


We encourage everyone who is interested in the project to contribute and/or contact the project leads by e-mailing: dk [at], mcfrank [at], hrakocz [at], Tobias.Schuwerk [at]

Please note that access to infants/infant lab is not a prerequisite.


Schuwerk, T., Kampis, D., (…) Frank, M., Rakoczy, R. (Stage 1 RR under review). Action anticipation based on an agent’s epistemic state in toddlers and adults.PsyArXiv Preprint